Development during COVID-19 pandemic: the role of coronavirus testing and functional labs

 This study analyzes the money supply reaction to the COVID-19 pandemic using a cross-sectional panel of 115 countries. The study used robust least square regression and innovation accounting techniques to get sound parameter estimates.
The results show that COVID-19 infected cases are the main contributing factor that obstructs financial activities and decrease money supply. In contrast, an increasing number of recovered cases and COVID-19 testing capabilities gave investors confidence to increase stock trade across countries. The overall forecast trend shows that COVID-19 infected cases and recovered cases followed the U-shaped trend, while COVID-19 critical cases and reported deaths showed a decreasing trend.
Finally, the money supply and testing capacity show a positive trend over a period. The study concludes that financial development can be expanded by increasing the testing capacity of Gentaur Cellulose Stoppers and functional labs to identify suspected coronavirus cases globally.

Recovering metal(loids) and rare earth elements from closed landfill sites without excavation: Leachate recirculation opportunities and challenges

Metal (loids) and Rare Earth Elements (REE) (‘metals’) are used in a wide range of products, and therefore, the improvement of expectations for everyday comforts with demand continues to grow. Metal-bearing wastes are a secondary source of raw material that can meet this demand by providing a previously unconsidered low impact supply source. Total annual leachate production is 1,056,716 m3. Therefore, landfill leachate emerges as a significant potential resource as it contains high concentrations of metals. However, realising a profitable return on investment for leachate processing is a challenge due to relatively low recovery rates of approximately 0.02% of total heavy metals in a landfill being leached out in 30 years.
Variation within the multi-element value and the effect of other chemicals in these complex mixtures. There is a need to better understand the mechanisms and potential applicability of extraction methods for optimising metals recovery from leachate. This paper addresses this need by providing a systematic review of the critical factors and environmental conditions that influence the behaviour of metals within the landfilled waste.
The paper provides a synthesis of how the factors and conditions may affect leachate recirculation efficiency for recovery in the context of a range of opportunities and challenges facing circular economy practitioners. To approach feasibility metal recovery economically from landfill leachate without energy-intensive and environmentally destructive, future research actions need to be initiated in lab-based and later on semi-pilot to pilot studies, which the review can help achieve the challenges.

Amino acid pattern of rumen microorganisms in cattle fed mixed diets-An update

Rumen microorganisms turn small N-containing compounds into amino acids (AA) and contribute considerably to the supply of AA absorbed from the small intestine. Previous studies summarized the literature on microbial AA patterns, most recently in 2017 (Sok et al. Journal of Dairy Science, 100, 5241-5249). The present study intended to identify the microbial AA pattern typical when feeding Central European diets and a maximum proportion of concentrate (PCO; dry matter (DM) basis) of 0.60.
Data sets were created from the literature for liquid (LAB)- and particle (PAB)-associated bacteria, total bacteria and protozoa, including 16, 9, 27 and 8 studies and 36, 21, 60 and 18 diets respectively. Because the only differences detected between LAB and PAB were slightly higher Phe and lower Thr percentages in PAB (p < 0.05), results for bacteria were pooled. A further data set evaluated AA-N (AAN) as a proportion of total N in microbial fractions and a final data set estimated protozoal contributions to total microbial N (TMN) flow to the duodenum, which were used to calculate weighted TMN AA patterns.
Protozoa showed higher Lys, Asp, Glu, Ile and Phe and lower Ala, Arg, Gly, Met, Ser, Thr and Val proportions than bacteria (p < 0.05). The AAN percentage of total N in bacteria and protozoa showed large, unexplained variations, averaging 79.0% and 70.6% (p > 0.05) respectively.
Estimation of protozoal contribution to TMN resulted in a cattle-specific mixed model including PCO and DM intake (DMI) per unit of metabolic body size (kg0.75 ) as fixed effects (RMSE = 3.77). With moderate PCO and DMI between 80 and 180 g/kg0.75 , which corresponds to a DMI of approximately 10 to 25 kg in a cow with 650 kg body weight, protozoal contribution ranged between 9% and 26% of TMN. Within this range, the estimated protozoal contribution to TMN resulted in minor effects on the total microbial AA pattern.

Sustainable phosphorus management in soil using bone apatite

Soil fertility and phosphorus management by bone apatite amendment are receiving increasing attention, yet further research is needed to integrate the physicochemical and mineralogical transformation of bone apatite and their impact on the supply and storage of phosphorus in soil. This study has examined bone transformation in the field over a span of 10-years using a set of synchrotron-based microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) observations reveal the in-situ deterioration of bone osteocyte-canaliculi system and sub-micron microbial tunneling within a year. Extensive organic decomposition, secondary mineral formation and re-mineralization of apatite are evident from the 3rd year.
The relative ratio of (v1 + v3) PO43- to v3 CO32- and to amide I increase, and the v3c PO43- peak exhibits a blue-shift in less than 3 years. The carbonate substitution of bone hydroxyapatite (HAp) to AB-type CHAp, and phosphate crystallographic rearrangement become apparent after 10 years’ aging. The overall CO32- peak absorbance increases over time, contributing to a higher acid susceptibility in the aged bone.
The X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) binding energies for Ca (2p), P (2p) and O (1s) exhibit a red-shift after 1 year because of organo-mineral interplay and a blue-shift starting from the 3rd year as a result of the de-coupling of mineral and organic components. Nutrient supply to soil occurs within months via organo-mineral decoupling and demineralization.
More phosphorus has been released from the bones and enriched in the associated and adjacent soils over time. Lab incubation studies reveal prominent secondary mineral formation via re-precipitation at a pH similar to that in soil, which are highly amorphous and carbonate substituted and prone to further dissolution in an acidic environment. Our high-resolution observations reveal a stage-dependent microbial decomposition, phosphorus dissolution and immobilization via secondary mineral formation over time. The active cycling of phosphorus within the bone and its interplay with adjacent soil account for a sustainable supply and storage of phosphorus nutrients.

Chemical characterization of dissolved organic matter as disinfection byproduct precursors by UV/fluorescence and ESI FT-ICR MS after smoldering combustion of leaf needles and woody trunks of pine (Pinus jeffreyi)

Forested land plays an essential role in water supply across the United States (US). Smoldering commonly existing in wildfires contributes significantly to biomass consumption and gas emission, but its influence on source water quality has been rarely studied. Here, we investigated the impact of smoldering temperature (i.e., no burn, 250, 400, and 600 °C) on the nutrients, elements, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) of water extracts from the residues of the leaf needles and woody trunks of pine (Pinus jeffreyi) under the lab-simulated smoldering fire. Results showed the increase of pH and the yields of the dominated exchangeable cations of K+ and Mg2+, P, PO43--P, and SO42- with increasing temperature increasing from 250 to 600 °C, whereas significant decreases in the fraction of dissolved organic C in residue C with increasing temperature and the yields of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) after burnings.
Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) presented consistent results with UV/fluorescence, suggesting that the unburned materials contained more biodegradable tyrosine/tryptophan/soluble microbial byproduct-like compounds with high molecular weight (MW), whereas the 600 °C-smoldering materials composed of more aromatic, humified, fulvic/humic acid-like, and oxidized compounds with a potentially high density of C=C bonds had less reactivity in forming trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetonitriles (HANs). Our study indicates the smoldering-dominated prescribed fire as a potential forest management strategy for reducing biomass fuel and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) precursors in source water from forested lands.

Turnover Stoppers 6.5mm - PK10

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22221-72 NACALAI TESQUE 25G 19.25 EUR

Methyl Cellulose #100

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Methyl Cellulose #400

22222-62 NACALAI TESQUE 25G 14 EUR


Antitermite Properties of Wood Extracts from Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre (Leguminosae) against Subterranean Termites

Termites’ mortality was determined in each case of extract and solvent treated Whatman filter paper. Finally, wooden blocks of poplar (19×19×19 mm) were treated with extracts and respective solvents and exposed to termites in the field for 28 days. Minimum mean weight loss was observed in dried P. pinnata (6.38%), followed by fresh P. pinnata in choice tests.
In no-choice tests, dried P. pinnata was comparatively resistant with a weight loss of 12.37%, followed by fresh P. pinnata and P. deltoides. In toxicity bioassay, ethyl acetate-based wood extracts caused the highest mortality (41.66%), followed by petroleum ether, hexane, and water extracts at 10 mg/ml concentration. Similarly, ethyl acetate-based extracts showed maximum repellency (100%) followed by  petroleum ether extracts at 10 mg/ml and ethyl acetate at 5 mg/ml after 60 min of termite exposure. Minimum wood losses were observed in woods treated with ethyl acetate extracts compared to control and other treatments in field experiments.

Isolation of Halomicroarcula pellucida strain GUMF5, an archaeon from the Dead Sea-Israel possessing cellulase

A strain designated GUMF5 was isolated in Goa-India from sediments of Dead Sea-Israel and identified as haloarchaeon Halomicroarcula pellucida based on 16S rRNA gene analysis similarity value of 99.84%. Strain GUMF5 grew on mineral salts medium with 20% NaCl and 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose-sodium (CMC-Na) as a sole source of carbon and produced haloextremozyme cellulase. The enzyme was concentrated using Sephadex G20, precipitated with ethanol, dialyzed and retentate purified using Sephadex G200, the size exclusion chromatography. A yield of 78.53% cellulase with an activity of 131.13 U/mg and 1.24-fold purity was obtained. More Details
The purified cellulase had optimum activity at 20% NaCl, at 40 ºC, 0.5% CMC-Na, pH 7 and 150 rpm. SDS-PAGE combined with zymographic analysis revealed the molecular weight of cellulase as 240 kDa, 40 kDa and 17.4 kDa. The activity of the enzyme was stimulated by metallic cations in the order of Ca+2 > Mn+2 > Mg+2 > SO4 2- > NH4 + and was inhibited by Ag+ > Fe+2 > Cu+2. Methanol and ethanol enhanced the cellulase activity by 6% and 26%, respectively.
The haloextremozyme cellulase degraded Whatman No. 1 filter paper indicated in scanning electron micrographs, exposure of open pores and fibers without any intra connectivity corresponding to paperase activity and implicating the possible use of enzyme to bio-convert cellulosic waste. Conclusively, Halomicroarcula pellucida GUMF5 (Accession number: MH244431), globally, is the only Halomicroarcula pellucida isolated from the sediments of Dead Sea producing haloextremozyme cellulase, and hence is an important biotechnological resource.

Functional Comparison of Bioactive Cellulose Materials Incorporating Engineered Binding Proteins

Whatman No. 1 chromatography paper is widely used as a substrate for cellulose-based immunoassays. The immobilized proteins are used to capture target biomarkers for detection. However, alternative paper substrates may facilitate mass production of immunoassays as diagnostic tests. Here, we assessed the physical characteristics and protein immobilization capabilities of different commercial papers.
Some substrates fulfilled our design criteria, including adequate flow rate and sufficient protein immobilization for efficient target capture. This study demonstrates that a variety of paper substrates can be bioactivated and used to capture target biomarkers, enabling development of affordable diagnostic tests from a range of starting materials.

Evaluating performance of multiplex real time PCR for the diagnosis of malaria at elimination targeted low transmission settings of Ethiopia

Background: Malaria incidence has declined in Ethiopia in the past 10 years. Current malaria diagnostic tests, including light microscopy and rapid antigen-detecting diagnostic tests (RDTs) cannot reliably detect low-density infections. Studies have shown that nucleic acid amplification tests are highly sensitive and specific in detecting malaria infection.
This study took place with the aim of evaluating the performance of multiplex real time PCR for the diagnosis of malaria using patient samples collected from health facilities located at malaria elimination targeted low transmission settings in Ethiopia.
Methods: A health facility-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in selected malaria sentinel sites. Malaria-suspected febrile outpatients referred to laboratory for malaria testing between December 2019 and March 2020 was enrolled into this study. Sociodemographic information and capillary blood samples were collected from the study participants and tested at spot with RDTs.
Additionally, five circles of dry blood spot (DBS) samples on Whatman filter paper and thick and thin smear were prepared for molecular testing and microscopic examination, respectively. Multiplex real time PCR assay was performed at Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI) malaria laboratory. The performance of multiplex real time PCR assay, microscopy and RDT for the diagnosis of malaria was compared and evaluated against each other.
Results: Out of 271 blood samples, multiplex real time PCR identified 69 malaria cases as Plasmodium falciparum infection, 16 as Plasmodium vivax and 3 as mixed infections. Of the total samples, light microscopy detected 33 as P. falciparum, 18 as P. vivax, and RDT detected 43 as P. falciparum, 17 as P. vivax, and one mixed infection.
Using light microscopy as reference test, the sensitivity and specificity of multiplex real time PCR were 100% (95% CI (93-100)) and 83.2% (95% CI (77.6-87.9)), respectively. Using multiplex real time PCR as a reference, light microscopy and RDT had sensitivity of 58% (95% CI 46.9-68.4) and 67% (95% CI 56.2-76.7); and 100% (95% CI 98-100) and 98.9% (95% CI 96-99.9), respectively. Substantial level of agreement was reported between microscopy and multiplex real time PCR results with kappa value of 0.65.
Conclusions: Multiplex real-time PCR had an advanced performance in parasite detection and species identification on febrile patients’ samples than did microscopy and RDT in low malaria transmission settings. It is highly sensitive malaria diagnostic method that can be used in malaria elimination programme, particularly for community based epidemiological samples. Although microscopy and RDT had reduced performance when compared to multiplex real time PCR, still had an acceptable performance in diagnosis of malaria cases on patient samples at clinical facilities.

A practical method for storage, preservation and transportation of anuran urine samples using filter paper for hormone analysis

Anurans (frogs and toads) expelled urine when handled and it could provide insights into their physiological status. However, storage, preservation and transportation are often challenging. The study aimed to standardize and validate a field method for short-term storage and preserve of anuran urine samples using Whatman filter papers. To examine the efficacy of storage conditions and type of papers, urinary based enzyme immunoassays were used to measure progesterone and testosterone hormone metabolites.
  • High-Performance Liquid Chromatography was performed and revealed immunoreactive progesterone and testosterone metabolites in the urine samples.
  • Urinary hormone metabolites concentration stored in filter paper at room temperature and control samples stored in -20°C for the same period were similar. 
  • Whatman grade 50 was found to be more suitable for storage of hormones than grade 3 paper for the experiments performed.
  • A cheap and simple storage method for storage of anuran urine in field conditions using filter papers.•Anuran urine could be preserved and transported under ambient conditions without significant changes and loss of hormones.•This method would facilitate the endocrine monitoring of anurans in remote areas where limited logistics are available.

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cell tracking velocimetry as an economical and portable hematology analyzer

Anemia and iron deficiency continue to be the most prevalent nutritional disorders in the world, affecting billions of people in both developed and developing countries. The initial diagnosis of anemia is typically based on several markers, including red blood cell (RBC) count, hematocrit and total hemoglobin. Using modern hematology analyzers, erythrocyte parameters such as mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), etc. are also being used.
However, most of these commercially available analyzers pose several disadvantages: they are expensive instruments that require significant bench space and are heavy enough to limit their use to a specific lab and lead to a delay in results, making them less practical as a point-of-care instrument that can be used for swift clinical evaluation. Thus, there is a need for a portable and economical hematology analyzer that can be used at the point of need. In this work, we evaluated the performance of a system referred to as the cell tracking velocimetry (CTV) to measure several hematological parameters from fresh human blood obtained from healthy donors and from sickle cell disease subjects.
Our system, based on the paramagnetic behavior that deoxyhemoglobin or methemoglobin containing RBCs experience when suspended in water after applying a magnetic field, uses a combination of magnets and microfluidics and has the ability to track the movement of thousands of red cells in a short period of time. This allows us to measure not only traditional RBC indices but also novel parameters that are only available for analyzers that assess erythrocytes on a cell by cell basis.
As such, we report, for the first time, the use of our CTV as a hematology analyzer that is able to measure MCV, MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), red cell distribution width (RDW), the percentage of hypochromic cells (which is an indicator of insufficient marrow iron supply that reflects recent iron reduction), and the correlation coefficients between these metrics. Our initial results indicate that most of the parameters measured with CTV are within the normal range for healthy adults. Only the parameters related to the red cell volume (primarily MCV and RDW) were outside the normal range.
We observed significant discrepancies between the MCV measured by our technology (and also by an automated cell counter) and the manual method that calculates MCV through the hematocrit obtained by packed cell volume, which are attributed to the artifacts of plasma trapping and cell shrinkage. While there may be limitations for measuring MCV, this device offers a novel point of care instrument to provide rapid RBC parameters such as iron stores that are otherwise not rapidly available to the clinician. Thus, our CTV is a promising technology with the potential to be employed as an accurate, economical, portable and fast hematology analyzer after applying instrument-specific reference ranges or correction factors. More Details

Preparation of transparent photoluminescence smart window by integration of rare-earth aluminate nanoparticles into recycled polyethylene waste

Novel photoluminescent nanocomposite sheets were prepared for simple commercial manufacturing of transparent and luminous photochromic smart windows. Simple physical integration of lanthanide-doped strontium aluminium oxide (LdSAO) nanoparticles into recycled polyethylene (PE) waste introduced smart nanocomposite with persistent phosphorescence and photochromic properties. Because of the nanoparticle form of LdSAO is significant to develop transparent materials; LdSAO nanoparticles were well-dispersed in the polyethylene matrix. Both morphologies and chemical compositions of LdSAO nanoparticles and LdSAO-containing luminescent polyethylene sheets were investigated.
Both LdSAO-free and photoluminescent polyethylene sheets were colorless in regular daylight. Only LdSAO-containing polyethylene luminescent samples showed a brilliant green color under an UV supply and greenish-yellow color under darkness as verified by CIE Lab parameters. Both absorbance and emission bands were monitored at 377 and 436/517 nm, respectively.
For both photoluminescence spectroscopy and mechanical properties, the LdSAO-containing polyethylene luminescent sheets were compared to the LdSAO-free sample and found to have improved scratch resistance, UV protection, and superhydrophobic activity. Based on the added amount of LdSAO, photoluminescence, decay and lifetime spectral tests showed photochromic fluorescence and long-lasting phosphorescence characteristics. PELdSAO nanocomposite sheets displayed UV protection, photostability, hydrophobicity, excellent durability as compared to the blank LdSAO-free polyethylene sheet.

Financial development during COVID-19 pandemic: the role of coronavirus testing and functional labs

The outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in early 2020, known as COVID-19, spread to more than 200 countries and negatively affected the global economic output. Financial activities were primarily depressed, and investors were reluctant to start new financial investments while ongoing projects further declined due to the global lockdown to curb the disease.
  • This study analyzes the money supply reaction to the COVID-19 pandemic using a cross-sectional panel of 115 countries. The study used robust least square regression and innovation accounting techniques to get sound parameter estimates.
  • The results show that COVID-19 infected cases are the main contributing factor that obstructs financial activities and decrease money supply. In contrast, an increasing number of recovered cases and COVID-19 testing capabilities gave investors confidence to increase stock trade across countries.
  • The overall forecast trend shows that COVID-19 infected cases and recovered cases followed the U-shaped trend, while COVID-19 critical cases and reported deaths showed a decreasing trend. Finally, the money supply and testing capacity show a positive trend over a period.
  • The study concludes that financial development can be expanded by increasing the testing capacity and functional labs to identify suspected coronavirus cases globally.

Behavior of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in the rice husk pellet bioscrubber and its circulation water

In this study, pellet-type biofilter media was developed with rice husk and applied in a wet scrubber system for odor removal. The lab-scale bioscrubber system was operated for 200 days to evaluate odorous gas removal (i.e., NH3, H2S, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide), and the removal mechanism of odor gases was studied by analyzing the behavior of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in circulation water of bioscrubber system. The rice husk pellets supplied the organic carbon source and phosphoric acid necessary for microbial growth, allowing the system to continue successfully for 200 days without any maintenance technology.
By analyzing the behavior of the nitrogen and sulfur compounds in the circulation water, we confirmed that the odor gas removal resulted from various mechanisms, including adsorption and biodegradation. Ammonia gas was absorbed by the rice husk pellets and accumulated in the circulation water as nitrite under conditions of sufficient alkalinity and above pH 7.
Conversely, when the alkalinity and pH decreased, nitrite was rapidly converted to nitrate. However, H2S gas was oxidized to sulfate and continuously accumulated in the circulation water regardless of the pH and alkalinity. In addition, it was confirmed that the decrease in nitrate in the bioscrubber system was due to heterotrophic denitrification by the organic carbon source supply and autotrophic denitrification by sulfur gas. During the operation of the rice husk pellet bioscrubber for 8 months, under low solubility condition, more than 99% of NH3 and H2S were removed and about 85% of methyl mercaptan (MM) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were removed.


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UFGD develops detergent that eliminates the larvae of the dengue mosquito

aedes aegypti mosquitoes

A group of researchers from the Federal University of Grande Dourados, coordinated by Professor Dr. Alexeia Barufatti, are developing a detergent made from the liquid of the cashew nutshell, which in contact with water, eliminates the dengue mosquito larvae. This research is funded by PPSUS through Fundect.

According to Alexeia, the group’s work began in 2015 when the first experiments were carried out with the liquid extracted during the roasting of the cashew nut. The research group is formed by students of scientific initiation, master’s, doctorate, post-doctoral students, in addition to professors from UFGD, UFMS, and UNIFESP.

According to the biologist and postdoctoral fellow at UFGD, Bruno Amaral Crispim, the idea is that the compound is used as a normal detergent in domestic activities and that it would indirectly fulfill the objective of eliminating the larvae of the Aedes Aegypti mosquito.

From the cashew nut oil, we made chemical changes that made this product a detergent, which after tests of the larvicidal effect, proved its effectiveness in combating mosquito larvae. We also carry out tests of environmental effect where we verify that this product when reaching rivers and streams presents little or no toxicity in non-target organisms such as algae, fish, and crustaceans.

cashew nut oil

According to Bruno, the next steps in the project are safety tests for human health and afterward, after the product’s total effectiveness has been proven, make the companies that produce detergents “buy the idea” and start using this compound in their products. products.